Information on intellectual property within the WTO, news and official recordings of the activities of the TRIPS Council, as well as details of WTOs cooperation with other international organizations in this area: Communications – Members` transparency tools share information about their INTELLECTUAL property laws, rules and practices through submissions to the TRIPS Council. The toolkit contains information exchange procedures and other tools for member transparency work. Basic introduction to the DG Intellectual Property Agreement (TRIPS) From the WTO agreement, a written introduction to the WTO for non-specialists. The Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) came into force in 1995 as part of the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement. TRIPS integrates and builds on the latest versions of primary IP agreements managed by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the Paris Convention on the Protection of Industrial Property and the Bern Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. Daniele Archibugi and Andrea Filippetti argue that the importance of TRIPS in the process of developing and disseminating knowledge and innovation has been overestimated by their supporters. This was supported by the FINDINGs of the United Nations that many low-protection countries regularly benefit from significant foreign direct investment (FDI).  Analysis of OECD countries in the 1980s and 1990s (which extended the lifespan of drug patents by 6 years) showed that, although the total number of registered products increased slightly, the average innovation index remained unchanged.  On the other hand, J-rg Baten, Nicola Bianchi and Petra Moser (2017) find historical evidence that compulsory licensing – a key mechanism for weakening IP rights under Article 31 of TRIPS – can effectively lead to the promotion of inventions by increasing the threat to competition in areas of low competition.